A physical disability is any disability which limits the physical function of one or more limbs. Other physical disabilities include impairments which limit other facets of daily living, such as respiratory disorders and epilepsy.
A mental disorder or psychiatric disorder is a psychological pattern or anomaly, potentially reflected in behavior, that is generally associated with distress or disability, and which is not considered part of normal development in a person’s culture. Mental disorders are generally defined by a combination of how a person feels, acts, thinks or perceives. This may be associated with particular regions or functions of the brain or rest of the nervous system, often in a social context. The recognition and understanding of mental health conditions have changed over time and across cultures and there are still variations in definition, assessment and classification, although standard guideline criteria are widely used. In many cases, there appears to be a continuum between mental health and mental illness, making diagnosis complex. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), over a third of people in most countries report problems at some time in their life which meet criteria for diagnosis of one or more of the common types of mental disorder.
The causes of mental disorders are varied and in some cases unclear, and theories may incorporate findings from a range of fields. Services are based in psychiatric hospitals or in the community, and assessments are carried out by psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and clinical social workers, using various methods but often relying on observation and questioning. Clinical treatments are provided by various mental health professionals. Psychotherapy and psychiatric medication are two major treatment options, as are social interventions, peer support and self-help. In a minority of cases there might be involuntary detention or involuntary treatment, where legislation allows. Stigma and discrimination can add to the suffering and disability associated with mental disorders (or with being diagnosed or judged as having a mental disorder), leading to various social movements attempting to increase understanding and challenge social exclusion. Prevention is now appearing in some mental health strategies.
Spinal cord injury
Spinal cord injuries
Classification and external resources
View of the vertebral column and spinal cord
ICD-10 G95.9, T09.3
DiseasesDB 12327 29466
MedlinePlus 001066 000029
eMedicine emerg/553 neuro/711 pmr/182 pmr/183 orthoped/425
A spinal cord injury (SCI) refers to any injury to the spinal cord that is caused by trauma instead of disease. Depending on where the spinal cord and nerve roots are damaged, the symptoms can vary widely, from pain to paralysis to incontinence. Spinal cord injuries are described at various levels of “incomplete”, which can vary from having no effect on the patient to a “complete” injury which means a total loss of function.
Treatment of spinal cord injuries starts with restraining the spine and controlling inflammation to prevent further damage. The actual treatment can vary widely depending on the location and extent of the injury. In many cases, spinal cord injuries require substantial physical therapy and rehabilitation, especially if the patient’s injury interferes with activities of daily life.
Spinal cord injuries have many causes, but are typically associated with major trauma from motor vehicle accidents, falls, sports injuries, and violence. Research into treatments for spinal cord injuries includes controlled hypothermia and stem cells, though many treatments have not been studied thoroughly and very little new research has been implemented in standard care.
A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, designed to be a replacement for walking. The device comes in variations where it is propelled by motors or by the seated occupant turning the rear wheels by hand. Often there are handles behind the seat for someone else to do the pushing. Wheelchairs are used by people for whom walking is difficult or impossible due to illness (physiological or physical), injury, or disability. People with both sitting and walking disability often need to use a wheel bench.
Hawking at NASA, 1980s
Born Stephen William Hawking
8 January 1942 (age 71)
Residence United Kingdom
California Institute of Technology
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Doctoral advisor Dennis Sciama
Other academic advisors Robert Berman
A Brief History of Time
Albert Einstein Award (1978)
Wolf Prize (1988)
Prince of Asturias Award (1989)
Copley Medal (2006)
Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009)
Special Fundamental Physics Prize (2012)
(m. 1965–1991, divorced)
(m. 1995–2006, divorced)
with Jane Wilde – Robert (1967), Lucy (1969), and Timothy (1979)
Stephen William Hawking (i/ˈstiːvɛn hoʊkɪŋ/; stee-ven hoh-king), CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942) is an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. Among his significant scientific works have been a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularities theorems in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation. Hawking was the first to set forth a cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. He is a vocal supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.
He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009.
Hawking has achieved success with works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general; his A Brief History of Time stayed on the British Sunday Times best-sellers list for a record-breaking 237 weeks. Hawking has a motor neuron disease related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a condition that has progressed over the years. He is almost entirely paralysed and communicates through a speech generating device. He married twice and has three children.
For the knife maker, see Chris Reeve. For the similarly named actor who played Superman on TV in the 1950s, see George Reeves.
Reeve after the opening night of The Marriage of Figaro at the Circle in the Square Theatre, New York City, 1985.
Born Christopher D’Olier Reeve
September 25, 1952
New York City, New York, U.S.
Died October 10, 2004 (aged 52)
Mount Kisco, New York, U.S.
Cause of death causes from Sepsis
Resting place Cremated
Education Cornell University
Alma mater Juilliard School
Occupation Actor, director, producer, screenwriter, author
Years active 1974–2004
Known for Superman
Christopher Reeve Foundation
Home town Princeton, New Jersey
Height 6 ft 4 in (193 cm)
Board member of Christopher Reeve Foundation
Spouse(s) Dana Morosini (1992–2004)
Partner(s) Gae Exton
Children 3 (2 with Exton; 1 with Dana Reeve)
Parents F.D. Reeve
Barbara Pitney Reeve (née Lamb)
Family Franklin D’Olier
Awards Screen Actor Guild Award (1998), Emmy Award (1997), Lasker Award (2003)
Christopher D’Olier Reeve (September 25, 1952 – October 10, 2004) was an American actor, film director, producer, screenwriter, author and activist. He achieved stardom for his acting achievements, in particular his motion-picture portrayal of the fictional superhero Superman.
On May 27, 1995, Reeve became a quadriplegic after being thrown from a horse during an equestrian competition in Culpeper, VA. He required a wheelchair and breathing apparatus for the rest of his life. He lobbied on behalf of people with spinal-cord injuries and for human embryonic stem cell research, founding the Christopher Reeve Foundation and co-founding the Reeve-Irvine Research Center.
Reeve married Dana Morosini in April 1992. Christopher and Dana’s son, William Elliot Reeve, was born on June 7, 1992. Reeve also had two children, Matthew Exton Reeve (born 1979) and Alexandra Exton Reeve (born 1983), from his previous relationship with his longtime girlfriend, Gae Exton.
I actually live every single moment of my life inside of my on mind, this is the life of a person who is paralyzed from the neck down I have dreamed the biggest dream and thought about every crazy thing imaginable and the most frustrating part about it all I am unable to work on accomplishing any of my dreams. This is crazy my own father once told me that because of my disability all of my dreams would die before anybody would ever care to listen to me. All of my life I pried myself on being tough as nails but when he told me that it damn near destroyed me but jokes on him it made me stronger. Mr. Hawking and Mr. Reeves has inspired me in ways that words. Can’t describe and unless you have a disability you can’t possibly understand why. When this happened to Mr. Reeves it shook up things for awhile it made people like myself relevant but when he and his wife passed people like myself once again became invisible. How can we change this? I wish I had the answer but I don’t, the only way people will start caring is if it happens to someone very close to them, heaven forbid. My life means something I’m just trying to get everyone else to see what I see. That’s why I became a blogger, this is my platform for everything.