Racial segregation in the United States
Part of a series of articles on
Segregation in the US
Black Codes Black flight Blockbusting Chinese Exclusion Act Immigration Act of 1924 Indian Appropriations Indian Removal Act Japanese American internment Jim Crow laws Proposition 14 Racial segregation in Atlanta Racial steering Redlining Segregation academies Separate but equal Sundown town White flight
White Australia policy
Apartheid in South Africa
v t e
Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, included the racial segregation or hypersegregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines. The expression is most often used regarding the legally or socially enforced separation of African Americans from other races, but is also used regarding the separation of other minorities from the majority mainstream communities.
Racial segregation in the United States has meant the physical separation and provision of separate facilities (especially during the Jim Crow era), but it can also refer to other manifestations of racial discrimination such as separation of roles within an institution, such as the United States Armed Forces up to the 1950s when black units were typically separated from white units but were led by white officers.
Racial segregation in the United States can be divided into de jure and de facto segregation. De jure segregation, sanctioned or enforced by force of law, was stopped by federal enforcement of a series of Supreme Court decisions after Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. The process of throwing off legal segregation in the United States lasted through much of the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s when civil rights demonstrations resulted in public opinion turning against enforced segregation. De facto segregation — segregation “in fact” — persists to varying degrees without sanction of law to the present day. The contemporary racial segregation seen in America in residential neighborhoods has been shaped by public policies, mortgage discrimination and redlining among other things.
Hypersegregation is a form of racial segregation that consists of the geographical grouping of racial groups. Most often, this occurs in cities where the residents of the inner city are African Americans and the suburbs surrounding this inner core are often white European American residents. The idea of hypersegregation gained credibility in 1989 due to the work of Douglas Massey and Nancy A. Denton and their studies of “American Apartheid” when whites created the black ghetto during the first half of the 20th century in order to isolate growing urban black populations by segregation among inner-city African-Americans.
This is the beginning of the formula to Self hatred
First of all, it is important to note that black hair is completely unique to individuals of African descent.
African American hair has a deep coil pattern, akin to the Sine Wave, or the Alpha Helix; as a result, hair strands tend to grow upward and outward and often “marry” or intertwine with each other which often makes it very difficult and destructive to comb without moisturizing first. There are 8 hair types known to man: 1a being the straightest with the thickest strands and 4b being the kinkiest with the thinnest strands. Most African Americans have hair textures that range from 2b to 4b (I won’t get into the details of why because the reasons are as varied as our complexions.) Black hair is admittedly more difficult to manage and maintain due to its complex structure and lack of moisture.
The controversial term “good hair” was created within the black community during slavery. It traditionally meant shiny long hair with a soft wave pattern as opposed to “bad hair” which was drier, matted, difficult to maintain in length. Unfortunately, as a result of the legalized rape of black slaves, a third caste of people was created: “mixed or mulatto or biracial” slaves that typically had the softer wave pattern because of their European blood, but rarely as straight as the European. These mixed children were favored more by society because of their lighter skin, finer hair, and Caucasian ancestry. Subsequent to that preferential treatment, many non-mixed blacks began to envy and admire these biracial children while hating themselves even moreso. Everything that was distinctly African was considered bad– from dark skin, to full lips and wide noses, to curvy buttocks and most notably, kinky hair.
I’ve always had a problem with the term “bad hair” because it implies that black people have an inherent defect, or a deficiency of some sort that could only be fixed by mutilating it with chemicals and heat in an attempt to imitate another race’s natural texture. I admit that processed hair is much easier to maintain and is more acceptable socially, but there is nothing as liberating as accepting yourself for who you are; having to hide or change our hair inhibits our self-expression, and it hides our uniqueness from the rest of the world. Black hair can be braided and styled like no other type of hair; black hair is delicate yet strong–it defies gravity, protects us from bugs, extreme heat and cold. Black hair in its full glory is as regal as a lion’s mane and is a profound statement of power and strength; it is not limp and lifeless; it needs to be watered and fed like a plant; it is a covenant with the universe and our ancestors. Good hair is healthy, strong, clean hair that grows out of your scalp for free.
Here are a few tips on keeping your natural hair growing, flowing, and on your head.
1. Always moisturize before combing.
2. Never put “grease” or anything with petrolatum/mineral oil in your hair. Not only does it clog pores in your scalp, it clogs pores in your skin which could cause break outs. Furthermore, they make your hair smell. Use natural oils like Almond and Coconut oil instead.
3. A leave-in conditioner is not an option, it’s a MUST especially if you like to rock the ‘fros.
4. PLEASE don’t braid your hair too tightly, it can lead to dead ends and traction alopecia (permanent balding), aka “NO EDGES”.
5. Always use a wide toothed comb for natural hair, if you have a relaxer use a medium toothed comb for less resistance.
6. Wash your hair at least twice a week
7. Always tie your hair up at night.
Inferiority complex is a MF’er, lets learn to love our own roots.