“Einstein” redirects here. For other uses, see Einstein (disambiguation).
Albert Einstein in 1921
Born 14 March 1879
Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire
Died 18 April 1955 (aged 76)
Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.
Residence Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, United States
Kingdom of Württemberg (1879–1896)
German Empire (1914–1918)
Weimar Republic (1919-March 1933)
United States (1940–1955)
Swiss Patent Office (Bern)
University of Zurich
Charles University in Prague
Prussian Academy of Sciences
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
University of Leiden
Institute for Advanced Study
University of Zurich
Doctoral advisor Alfred Kleiner
Other academic advisors Heinrich Friedrich Weber
Ernst G. Straus
General relativity and special relativity
Theory of Brownian Motion
Einstein field equations
Unified Field Theory
Nobel Prize in Physics (1921)
Matteucci Medal (1921)
Copley Medal (1925)
Max Planck Medal (1929)
Time Person of the Century (1999)
Spouse Mileva Marić (1903–1919)
Elsa Löwenthal (1919–1936)
Children Lieserl (1902-1903?)
Hans Albert (1904-1973)
Eduard “Tete” (1910-1965)
Albert Einstein (/ˈælbərt ˈaɪnstaɪn/; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] ( listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics). While best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed “the world’s most famous equation”), he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics “for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”. The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory.
Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the large-scale structure of the universe.
He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the U.S., becoming an American citizen in 1940. On the eve of World War II, he helped alert President Franklin D. Roosevelt that Germany might be developing an atomic weapon and recommended that the U.S. begin similar research; this eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project. Einstein was in support of defending the Allied forces, but largely denounced using the new discovery of nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, with the British philosopher Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. Einstein was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955.
Sagan in 1980
Born Carl Edward Sagan
November 9, 1934
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
Died December 20, 1996 (aged 62)
Seattle, Washington, U.S.
Residence United States
Fields Astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, astrobiology, space science, planetary science
Institutions Cornell University
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
University of California, Berkeley
Alma mater University of Chicago
(B.A.), (B.Sc.), (M.Sc.), (Ph.D.)
Doctoral advisor Gerard Kuiper
Known for Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI)
Cosmos: A Personal Voyage
Voyager Golden Record
Pale Blue Dot
Notable awards NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal (1977)
Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction (1978)
Oersted Medal (1990)
National Academy of Sciences Public Welfare Medal (1994)
Spouse Lynn Margulis
(1957–1965; divorced; 2 children)
(1968–1981; divorced; 1 child)
(1981–1996; his death; 2 children)
Carl Edward Sagan (/ˈseɪɡən/; November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, astrophysicist, cosmologist, author, science popularizer and science communicator in astronomy and natural sciences. He spent most of his career as a professor of astronomy at Cornell University where he directed the Laboratory for Planetary Studies. He published more than 600 scientific papers and articles and was author, co-author or editor of more than 20 books. He advocated scientific skeptical inquiry and the scientific method, pioneered exobiology and promoted the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI).
Sagan is known for his popular science books and for the award-winning 1980 television series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, which he narrated and co-wrote. The book Cosmos was published to accompany the series. Sagan wrote the novel Contact, the basis for a 1997 film of the same name.
Hawking at NASA, 1980s
Born Stephen William Hawking
8 January 1942 (age 71)
Residence United Kingdom
California Institute of Technology
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Doctoral advisor Dennis Sciama
Other academic advisors Robert Berman
A Brief History of Time
Albert Einstein Award (1978)
Wolf Prize (1988)
Prince of Asturias Award (1989)
Copley Medal (2006)
Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009)
Special Fundamental Physics Prize (2012)
(m. 1965–1991, divorced)
(m. 1995–2006, divorced)
with Jane Wilde – Robert (1967), Lucy (1969), and Timothy (1979)
Stephen William Hawking (i/ˈstiːvɛn hoʊkɪŋ/; stee-ven hoh-king), CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942) is an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. Among his significant scientific works have been a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularities theorems in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation. Hawking was the first to set forth a cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. He is a vocal supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.
He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009.
Hawking has achieved success with works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general; his A Brief History of Time stayed on the British Sunday Times best-sellers list for a record-breaking 237 weeks. Hawking has a motor neuron disease related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a condition that has progressed over the years. He is almost entirely paralysed and communicates through a speech generating device. He married twice and has three children.
This is what drives me, always have and always will.